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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: neuroscience, philosophy of
represents. A physical state represents birds, for example, just in case an appropriate causal relation obtains between it and birds. At the heart of informational semantics is a causal account of information (Dretske, 1981, 1988). Red spots on a face carry the ...
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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: defaults in semantics and pragmatics
defaults for speakers' overall knowledge state: they may arise because the speaker did not say something he or she could have said or because the speaker assumed some cultural or social information to be shared knowledge. For example, we cannot formalize the interpretation of...